Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61): a novel soluble biomarker of acute myocardial injury improves risk stratification after acute coronary syndromes

Eur.Heart J. 2017: - (Journal)

Klingenberg R., Aghlmandi S., Liebetrau C., Raber L., Gencer B., Nanchen D., Carballo D., Akhmedov A., Montecucco F., Zoller S., Brokopp C., Heg D., Juni P., Marti Soler H., Marques-Vidal P.M., Vollenweider P., Dorr O., Rodondi N., Mach F., Windecker S., Landmesser U., von Eckardstein A., Hamm C.W., Matter C.M., Luscher T.F.

Aims: We aimed to identify a novel biomarker involved in the early events leading to an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and evaluate its role in diagnosis and risk stratification. Methods and results: Biomarker identification was based on gene expression profiling. In coronary thrombi of ACS patients, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61, CCN1) gene transcripts were highly up-regulated compared with peripheral mononuclear cells. In a murine ischaemia-reperfusion model (I/R), myocardial Cyr61 expression was markedly increased compared with the controls. Cyr61 levels were determined in human serum using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cohorts of ACS (n = 2168) referred for coronary angiography, stable coronary artery disease (CAD) (n = 53), and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) patients (n = 15) served to identify and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic performance of the biomarker. Cyr61 was markedly elevated in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients compared with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction/unstable angina or stable CAD patients, irrespective of whether coronary thrombi were present. Cyr61 was rapidly released after occlusion of a septal branch in HOCM patients undergoing transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy. Cyr61 improved risk stratification for all-cause mortality when added to the reference GRACE risk score at 30 days (C-statistic 0.88 to 0.89, P = 0.001) and 1 year (C-statistic 0.77 to 0.80, P < 0.001) comparable to high-sensitivity troponin T (30 days: 0.88 to 0.89, P < 0.001; 1 year: 0.77 to 0.79, P < 0.001). Similar results were obtained for the composite endpoint of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction. Conversely, in a population-based case-control cohort (n = 362), Cyr61 was not associated with adverse outcome. Conclusion: Cyr61 is a novel early biomarker reflecting myocardial injury that improves risk stratification in ACS patients

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