Residual inflammatory risk at 12 months after acute coronary syndromes is frequent and associated with combined adverse events

Atherosclerosis 2021; 320: 31-37, ISBN 0021-9150 (Journal)

Klingenberg R., Aghlmandi S., Gencer B., Nanchen D., Räber L., Carballo D., Carballo S., Stähli B. E., Landmesser U., Rodondi N., Mach F., Windecker S., Bucher H. C., von Eckardstein A., Lüscher T. F., Matter C. M.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Residual inflammatory risk (RIR) after acute coronary syndromes (ACS) may identify patients likely to benefit from anti-inflammatory therapies. METHODS: Patients from the Special Program University Medicine ACS cohort were divided into four groups according to level of hsCRP at baseline and after 12 months: persistently high RIR, increased RIR (first low, then high hsCRP), attenuated RIR (first high, then low hsCRP), or persistently low RIR. High RIR was defined as hsCRP ≥ 2 mg/L. An independently adjudicated incident of combined adverse events was defined as the composite of myocardial infarction, clinically indicated coronary revascularization or cerebrovascular events. RESULTS: Among 1209 patients with available hsCRP, clinical and demographic data, 295 (24.4%) patients had persistently high RIR (delta hsCRP median (IQR): 2.3 (-9.9; 0.3) (mg/L) and 72 (5.96%) patients had increased RIR (delta hsCRP median (IQR): +2.45 (1.2; 8.35) (mg/L). A total of 390 (32.26%) patients had attenuated RIR (delta hsCRP median (IQR): 3.55 (-10; -2) (mg/L) and 452 (37.38%) patients had persistently low RIR (delta hsCRP median (IQR): 0.2 (-0.6; 0.1) (mg/L). Of 90 combined adverse events, 31 (10.5%) occurred in the persistently high (multivariable adjusted OR: 1.71, (95% CI 1.08-2.7), p = 0.022) compared with the three other groups combined (increased RIR: 3 (4.2%), attenuated RIR 30 (7.7%), persistently low RIR 26 (5.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Persistently elevated hsCRP after ACS is found in a quarter of patients with the highest risk of combined adverse events. This underlines the need to perform anti-inflammatory intervention trials in RIR patients.

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